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Den jødiske eksodus fra islamske land: Oppreisning for urett – for alle parter

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Den jødiske eksodus fra islamske land:

Oppreisning for urett – for alle parter

 

Av Aharon Mor og Orly Rahimiyan

Noter:

 

[1] http://www.justiceforjews.com/resource_and_reference.pdf

 

[2] 2. Martin Gilbert, In Ishmael’s House: A History of Jews in Muslim Lands (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011)

 

[3] Gudrun Krämer, The Jews in Modern Egypt, 1914-1952 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1989)

 

[4] Zvi Yehuda and Shmuel Moreh, (eds.), Al-Farhud: The 1941 Pogrom in Iraq (Jerusalem: Magnes Press and The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, and the Babylonian Jewish Heritage Center, 1992 [Hebrew], 2010 [English]); Esther Meir-Glitzenstein, Zionism in an Arab Country: Jews in Iraq in the 1940s (London and New York: Routledge, 2004)

 

[5] http://www.justiceforjews.com/resource_and_reference.pdf

 

[6] Regarding the number of Palestinian refugees, see also Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-1949 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988)

 

[7] Sidney Zabludoff, “The Palestinian Refugee Issue: Rhetoric vs. Reality,” Jewish Political Studies Review 20:1-2 (Spring 2008)

 

[8] Ibid

 

[9] This assumes U.S. dollar prices rise some 2.7 percent in 2012

 

[10] http://www.justiceforjews.com/resource_and_reference.pdf

 

[11] General Assembly Official Records, 3rd session, part 1, 1948, Resolutions, pp. 21-24

 

[12] Mr. Auguste Lindt, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Report of the UNREF Executive Committee, Fourth Session – Geneva 29 January to 4 February, 1957; and Dr. E. Jahn, Office of the UN High Commissioner, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Document No. 7/2/3/Libya, July 6, 1967

 

[13] Resolution 242: The situation in the Middle East (22 Nov 1967): http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/240/94/IMG/NR024094.pdf?OpenElement

 

[14] The Camp David Accords, paragraph A(1)(f), http://www.knesset.gov.il/process/docs/camp_david_eng.htm

 

[15] Article 8 of the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979. Text of the Treaty: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace%20Process/Guide%20to%20the%20Peace%20Process/Israel-Egypt%20Peace%20Treaty.

 

[16] Article 8 (paragraph 1) of the Israel–Jordan Peace Treaty. Text of the Treaty: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace%20Process/Guide%20to%20the%20Peace%20Process/Israel-Jordan%20Peace%20Treaty

 

[17] Israeli-Palestinian Agreements, 1993: Almost every reference to the refugee issue in Israeli-Palestinian agreements, talks about “refugees,” without qualifying which refugee community is at issue, including the Declaration of Principles of 13 September 1993 {Article V (3)}, and the Interim Agreement of September 1995 {Articles XXXI (5)}, both of which refer to “refugees” as a subject for permanent status negotiations, without qualifications

 

[18] Tal Becker, Terrorism and the State: Rethinking the Rules of State Responsibility (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2006), pp. 50-57, 78

 

[19] http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/13/magazine/13Israel-t.html?pagewanted=all; Gilad Sher, The Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations,1999-2001 (London: Routledge, 2006), pp. 101, 247-249; Irwin

Cotler, David Matas, and Stanley A. Urman, “Jewish Refugees from Arab Countries: The Case for Rights and Redress” (New York: Justice for Jews from Arab Countries, 2007), pp 5-6.

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton made the following assertion after the rights of Jews displaced from Arab countries were discussed at “Camp David II” in July 28, 2000 (from White House Transcript of Israeli television interview): “There will have to be some sort of international fund set up for the refugees. There is, I think, some interest, interestingly enough, on both sides, in also having a fund which compensates the Israelis who were made refugees by the war, which occurred after the birth of the State of Israel. Israel is full of people, Jewish people, who lived in predominantly Arab countries who came to Israel because they were made refugees in their own land.”

 

[20] http://www.uncc.ch/   http://www.uncc.ch/introduc.htm

 

[21] Nathan Jeffay, “Jews Displaced from Arab Lands Finally Recognized,” Forward, March 10, 2010

Stjålet historie: Hvordan palestinerne og deres forbundsfeller angriper Israels rett til å eksistere ved å utradere Israels fortid

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Stjålet historie: Hvordan palestinerne og deres forbundsfeller angriper Israels rett til å eksistere ved å utradere Israels fortid

Av David Meir Levi

Noter:

 

1 http://www.yale.edu/ycsd/press/palazzi.html  Yale University, Sheikh Professor Abdul Hadi Palazzi, the Secretary General of the Italian Muslim Association, spoke on the topic of “Islam and Democracy — Political Theory in the Qur’an and Islamic Tradition,” March 4, 2003.

 

2 Besser, James, “Obama administration hits Palestinian Authority for Temple Mount ‘Study’, The Jewish Week, Nov. 30, 2010, http://www.thejewishweek.com/blogs/political_insider/obama_administration_hits_palestinian_authority_temple_mount_study  and cf. also Ami-El, Mark, “The Destruction of the Temple Mount Antiquities,” Jerusalem Viewpoints, 1 August, 2003, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp483.htm

 

3 Routledge, London, 1996, Keith W. Whitelam, chair, Biblical Studies Department, Sheffield University (UK).

 

4 For demographic studies substantiating this assertion, cf. Justin McCarthy, Population of Palestine; and Joan Peters, From Time Immemorial.

 

5 McCarthy, op. cit supra, note #5.

 

6 Syrkin, Marie, “Palestinian Nationalism: Its Development and Goal,” in Curtis, Michael, Neyer, Joseph, Waxman, Chaim, and Pollack, Allen, The Palestinians: People, History, Politics (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1975), p. 200 ff.

 

7 Ibid, supra note 7, p. 201.

 

8 Dorsey, James, Wij zijn alleen Palestijn om politieke reden, Trouw, 31 March 1977; not available on line but referenced frequently on line at, inter alia: http://www.think-israel.org/hertz.ersatzpeople.html  http://www.youtube.com/user/blessings18  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zuheir_Mohsen ; http://acapella.harmony-central.com/showthread.php?1297324-PLO-executive-committee-member-Zahir-Muhseinquot-The-Palestinian-people-does-not-exist-quot   and  http://www.danielpipes.org/comments/18157

 

9 Such as, but not limited to, the Encyclopaedia Britannica , the Jewish Encyclopedia, the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, and other major encyclopedias from the early 20th century on. There are other non-Israelite peoples mentioned very briefly in the Jewish Scriptures, but these nine are the ones best documented and most thoroughly researched by scholars since the mid-19th century.

 

10 http://www.jstor.org/  (and cf. also http://about.jstor.org/ ). JSTOR is a not–for–profit on-line service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of scholarly content in a trusted digital archive of over one thousand academic journals and other scholarly sources. It enables access to and preservation of scholarly books and articles in collaboration with the academic community. Each non-Israelite nation mentioned above has been the beneficiary of hundreds, and in some cases thousands, or scholarly articles, monographs, and in some cases entire books. These scholarly works can be accessed via the urls below, but may require registration with JSTOR for a fee. http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=canaanites&gw=jtx&prq=philistines&Search=Search&hp=25&wc=on   http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=philistines&acc=off&wc=on;http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=moabites&gw=jtx&prq=moabites&Search=Search&hp=25&wc=on; http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=edomites&gw=jtx&prq=edomites&Search=Search&hp=25&wc=on ; http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=ammonites+in+ancient+near+east&gw=jtx&prq=ancient+ammonites+in+canaan&Search=Search&hp=25&wc=on ; http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=amorites&gw=jtx&prq=arameans&Search=Search&hp=25&wc=on;http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=arameans&gw=jtx&prq=ammonites+in+ancient+near+east&Search=Search&hp=25&wc=on  ; http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicResults?hp=25&la=&wc=on&acc=off&gw=jtx&jcpsi=1&artsi=1&Query=amalekites&sbq=amalekites&prq=amorites&si=26&jtxsi=26 ; http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=jebusites&gw=jtx&prq=amalekites&Search=Search&hp=25&wc=on

 

11 These too can be sources of hundreds of articles on the history, language and culture of these non-Israelite peoples. Go to http://www.hds.harvard.edu/faculty-research/research-publications/harvard-theological-review  and http://www.asor.org/pubs/basor/basor.html  for more details.

 

12 Among the more highly regarded of full-sized texts on these peoples, see:

For Canaanites: Redford, Donald B. (1993), Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, (Princeton University Press); and Tubb, Jonathan N., Canaanites, (Oklahoma) 1998.

For Philistines: Dothan, Trude Krakauer (1982), The Philistines and Their Material Culture. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press; Idem & Dothan, Moshe (1992), People of the Sea: The Search for the Philistines, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company; Idem & Gitin, Seymour, Mazar, Amihai, Stern, Ephraim (1998), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BC. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Exploration Society; Ehrlich, Carl S. (1996), The Philistines in Transition: A History from ca. 1000-730 BC. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill; Finkelstein, Israel (December 2002), “The Philistines in the Bible: A Late-Monarchic Perspective”. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 27 (2): 131–167; Killebrew, Ann E. (2005), Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, and Early Israel, 1300-1100 B.C.E.. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature; and Oren, Eliezer D. (2000), The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment (University Museum Monograph 108). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania and Yasur-Landau, Assaf (2010), The Philistines and Aegean Migration at the End of the Late Bronze Age. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

For Moabites: Routledge, Bruce. ‘Moab in the Iron Age: Hegemony, Polity, Archaeology,’ 2004; Bienkowski, Piotr (ed.) Early Edom and Moab: The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan (1992); and Dearman, Andrew (ed.) Studies in the Mesha inscription and Moab (1989).

For Edomites: Piotr Bienkowski, “New Evidence on Edom in the Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods”, in John Andrew Dearman, Matt Patrick Graham, (eds.), The land that I will show you: essays on the history and archaeology of the Ancient Near East in honour of J. Maxwell Miller, (Sheffield Academic Press, 2001), pp. 198ff.

For Amorites: Giorgio Bucellati, “Ebla and the Amorites”, Eblaitica 3 (1992):83-104; and Alfred Haldar, Who Were the Amorites (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971).

For Ammonites: Cohen, D., (ed.) (1988). “Les Langues Chamitosemitiques”. Les langues dans le monde ancien et modern, part 3. Paris: CNRS. Aufrecht, WE (1989), A Corpus of Ammonite Inscriptions; Lehmann, Ulrich and Lettau, Janine, The Ammonites: Their life and their world (1981); and MacDonald, Burton & Younker, Randall W., (1999), Ancient Ammon. BRILL, Netherlands.

For Midianites: Clines, David and Sawyer, John, eds. “Midian, Moab and Edom: The History and Archaeology of Late Bronze and Iron Age Jordan and North-West Arabia”. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Supplement Series, No. 24. Sheffield Academic Press, 1983.

For Arameans: Beyer, Klaus (1986). “The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions,” (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht); Lipiński, Edward (2000). The Aramaeans: their ancient history, culture, religion, Peeters Publishers, Netherlands; Moscati, S., ‘The Aramaean Ahlamû’, FSS, IV (1959); and the Tel Halaf excavation series: M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Der Tell Halaf, Leipzig, 1931 pp. 71–198; M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Tell Halaf, III, Die Bauwerke, Berlin, 1950; A. Moortgat, Tell Halaf IV, Die Bildwerke, Berlin, 1955; B. Hrouda, Tell Halaf IV, Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit, Berlin, 1962.

For Amalekites: Tanner, Hans Andreas, “Amalek: Der Fiend Israels und der Fiend Jahwes,” in Dietrich, Walter, Biblische Enzyklopaedie, “The Early Monarchy in Israel: The Tenth Century,” Zurich, 2007.

 

13 Unless otherwise noted, the references below can be found in Pritchard, James B., & Fleming, Daniel E., The Ancient Near East: an Anthology of Texts and Pictures, 2010.

 

14 Yellin, Avi, Arutz Sheva News, “King David Era Pottery Shard Supports Biblical Narrative,” 1/8/2010, http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/135432

 

15 Aharoni, Yohanan, The Arad Inscriptions, 1981, University of Virginia: Israel Exploration Society.

 

16 cf. Rocker, Simon, “What the Koran says about the Land of Israel,” The Jewish Chronicle on Line, March 19, 2009, http://www.thejc.com/judaism/judaism-features/what-koran-says-about-landisrael for a full discussion of this issue with reference to medieval Muslim commentators.

 

17cf. http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=7&x_issue=4&x_article=1843

 

18 Author’s addendum: For a fully detailed and annotated critique of Abu el-Haj’s attempt to discredit Israeli archaeology, see this writer’s lengthy article, “Facts on the Ground – Nadia Abu el-Haj’s New Salvo in the Arab Propaganda War against Israel,” http://www.campus-watch.org/article/id/3890  Middle East studies in the News; and see also ibid in Solomonia Blog, August 15, 2007, http://www.solomonia.com/blog/archive/2007/08/david-meirlevy-facts-on-theground-nadia/http://www.campus-watch.org/article/id/3890  Abu el-Haj’s seemingly endless errors of fact and apparently intentional fictionalization of Israeli archaeology’s acquisition and interpretation of evidence are far too numerous to recount here.

 

19 Cf. http://www.klinebooks.com/cgi-bin/kline/24816  for extant copies, and http://www.bibleplaces.com/guide.pdf  for the on-line original text.

 

20 Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, August 12, 2000, Translation: MEMRI; and http://israndjer.blogspot.com/2007/11/issues-in-peace-process.html for a reference to his 2002 flippant suggestion that perhaps the Temple was in Yemen.

 

21 Ross, Dennis, The Missing Peace: the Inside Story of the Fight for Middle East Peace, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, August, 2004; and Gold, Dore, The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical Islam, the West, and the Future of the Holy City. Regnery Publishing, 2002

 

22 Kay, Jonathan, National Post (Canada), July 19, 2011, “Once again, the Jewish Question,” http://www.nationalpost.com/news/Once+again+Jewish+question/5122436/story.html

 

23 Davila, James R., “Temple Mount Watch: The BBC is taking Jewish-Temple denial in Palestinian circles rather more seriously than it deserves,” Paleojudaica.com, June 2, 2009.

 

24 Kul Al-Arab (Israel), August 25, 2000; Translation: MEMRI: quoted in CAMERA, http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=7&x_issue=4&x_article=1843

 

25 Sauwt Falastin (Voice of Palestine) Radio Station, July 26, 2000, Al-Ayyam, July 27, 2000.

 

26 Die Welt, January 17, 2001, quoted in CAMERA, Hollander, Ricki, “Celebrating Jerusalem amid Denial of Jewish Rights,” May 12, 2010, http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=7&x_issue=4&x_article=1843 ; and for his earlier pronouncements of the same opinions, cf. also Al Ayyam, Nov. 22, 1997; and Kul Al-Arab, August 18, 2000.

 

27 Ibid, note #29, Die Welt.

 

28 http://www.bibleinterp.com/articles/Dahari_letter.shtml “The WAC Accusation of Israeli Destruction of Archaeological Sites,” Jan 7 2004; and cf. also http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090819/full/news.2009.835.html  “Uproar over Palestinian Archaeology Congress” for more on the debate over these issues.

 

29 cf. CAMERA ibid, supra note #29, and cf. also CAMERA http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=7&x_issue=4&x_article=1404  for a very comprehensive list of Palestinian leaders’ public denials of Israel’s connection to the land of Israel and to the Temple Mount over the past decade.

 

30 Cf. Shanks, Hershel, 18 July 2008). “Opinion:Biblical Destruction”. Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118472091594669763.html?mod=opinion&ojcontent=otep  Chabin, Michele, (11 July 2006). “Archaeologists Campaign to Stop Desecration of Temple Mount,” Jewish United Fund, http://www.juf.org/news/israel.aspx?id=10300  and Ami-El, Mark (1 August 2002), “The Destruction of the Temple Mount Antiquities,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp483.htm

 

31 http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp483.htm  and cf. also Romey, Kristin M. (March–April 2000), “Jerusalem’s Temple Mount Flap”. Archaeology: A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America 53 (2), http://www.archaeology.org/0003/newsbriefs/flap.html  and Paul Reynolds (9 February 2007), “In Jerusalem archaeology is politics,” BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6347077.stm

 

32 Lappin, Yaakov, (7 February 2007). “Archaeologists: Waqf damaging Temple Mount remains,” Ynet. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3362223,00.html  and cf. also http://christianactionforisrael.org/isreport/novdec99/temple.html  and The Israel Report, “Temple Mount: Layers of dirt, history, and conflict,” by Arnold, Michael S., Jerusalem Post, Nov./Dec. 1999.

 

33 http://elderofziyon.blogspot.com/2010/11/pa-ministry-of-information-kotel-not.html

 

34 http://www.palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=489

 

35 Yahya, Adel H., Director, Palestinian Association for Cultural Exchange (PACE), “Palestinians are the illegal excavators,” http://presentpasts.info/index.php/pp/article/viewArticle/pp.26/48

 

36 Cf. Shragai, Nadav, “In the beginning was Al-Aqsa,” Haaretz, November 27, 2005 for a summary of these allegations, and  http://www.ouraqsa.com/english/  for Marouf’s website.

 

37 Mazuz, Hagai and Rhode, Harold, “Is Jerusalem Sacred for Muslims?” Hudson New York, October 20, 2010, http://www.hudson-ny.org/1609/jerusalem-sacred-for-muslims

 

38 “Erasing Ezekiel’s Jewish identity,” http://www.plaintruth.com/the_plain_truth/2010/01/erasing-ezekiels-jewish-identity.html  January 15, 2010.

 

39 UNESCO, 184 EX/37, Paris, March 19, 2010, http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/8F8CBDCA74D7D20385257721007157CF

 

40 http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_alaqsa_josephstomb.php .

 

41 http://archaeologynewsreport.blogspot.com/2008/09/are-dead-seascrolls-palestinian.html  “Come again?: Ancient Hebrew fragments of Jewish Bible are part of Muslim country’s ‘cultural heritage,’” January 4, 2010, http://archaeologynewsreport.blogspot.com/2008/09/are-dead-sea-scrolls-palestinian.html

 

42 “Are the Dead Sea Scrolls Palestinian treasures?” http://archaeologynewsreport.blogspot.com/2008/09/are-dead-sea-scrolls-palestinian.html  September 6, 2008.

 

43 Ibid, supra note #49.

 

44 Gil Atzmon, Li Hao, Itsik Pe’er, Christopher Velez, Alexander Pearlman, Pier Francesco Palamara, Bernice Morrow, Eitan Friedman, Carole Oddoux, Edward Burns, and Harry Ostrer, “Abraham’s Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 86 (2010), pp. 850-859; and cf. also Begley, Sharon (June 3, 2010). “The DNA Of Abraham’s Children”. Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/2010/06/03/the-dna-of-abraham-s-children.html

 

45 Balter, Michael (June 3, 2010), “Tracing the Roots of Jewishness,” Science, http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/06/tracingthe-roots-of-jewishness.html

 

46 Nature: the International Journal of Science, Volume: 466, Pages: 238–242, 08 July 2010, http://blogs.nature.com/news/thegreatbeyond/2010/06/genes_link_jewish_communities.html  and

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09103.html  and cf. also Technion Focus, October 2010, “Jewish Genes,” www.focus.technion.ac.il  and http://www.focus.technion.ac.il/Oct10researchStory1.htm

 

47 Ibid, Nature, July 2010.

 

48 Supra, notes #6-9.

 

49 Cf. the author’s History upside Down: the Roots of Palestinian Fascism and the Myth of Israeli Aggression, Encounter Books, 2007; and Küntzel, Matthias, Jihad and Jew-Hatred, 2007, for a global analysis of this phenomenon.

 

50 Cf. supra, note #56, History upside Down.

 

51 http://www.ajtransparency.com/en/document/2021

 

52 http://www.newsrealblog.com/2011/02/12/cynical-plo-deniesthe-undeniable-jews-exist-1/  Tzioni, Eldad, “Cynical PLO Denies the Undeniable – Jews Exist!” Feb 12, 2011; and cf. also http://www.newsrealblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/abbas1.jpg  and for one example out of many cf. http://elderofziyon.blogspot.com/search/label/Palestine%20Papers

Fornyelse av gammel kirkelig forakt: Sabeel

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Fornyelse av gammel kirkelig forakt: Sabeel

Av Dexter Van Zile

Noter:

[1] Michel Sabbah et al., “A Moment of Truth: A Word of Faith, Hope, and Love from the Heart of Palestinian Suffering,” 11 December 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.kairospalestine.ps/sites/default/Documents/English.pdf

Norsk oversettelse: http://www.kfuk-kfum-global.no/filestore/KairosPalestinaNorsk.pdf

[2] Ibid., para. 1.4.

[3] Ranjan Solomon, “Kairos initiative: a message of hope for a just peace in Palestine,” World Council of Churches, 16 December 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2010, www.oikoumene.org/en/news/news-management/eng/a/article/1634/kairos-initiative-a-mess.html?tx_ttnews%5Bswords%5D=kairos%20document&cHash=b4a5a3f46e183904018e768790ce0e78

[4] For revealing information about the political maneuvering associated with the KPD, see Malcom Lowe, “The Palestinian ‘Kairos’ Document: A Behind-the-Scenes Analysis,” New English Review, April 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.newenglishreview.org/custpage.cfm/frm/60512/sec_id/60512

[5] “WCC general secretary applauds church support for the ‘Kairos Palestine’ document,” 21 December 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2010, www.oikoumene.org/en/news/news-management/eng/a/browse/16/article/1634/wcc-general-secretary-app-2.html

[6] “A pastoral response to the Palestine Kairos document: ‘A Moment of Truth,’” Global Ministries of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and United Church of Christ, April 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010, http://globalministries.org/mee/kairos/UCCDOCGM-Palestine-Kairos-April-2010.pdf

[7] Ryan Roderick Beiler, “A Prophetic Milestone toward Peace,” Sojourners, July 2010, 26.

[8] “On Commending ‘A Moment of Truth: A Word of Faith and Hope from the Heart of Palestinian Suffering’ as an Advocacy Tool,” Item 14-05, answered with another resolution by the PC(USA)’s 219th General Assembly in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.pc-biz.org/Explorer.aspx?id=3069

[9] “CCAR Resolution on the 2009 Kairos Document,” adopted by the Board of Trustees, 15 April 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010, http://data.ccarnet.org/cgi-bin/resodisp.pl?file=kairos&year=2010

[10] “Breaking Down the Walls,” Item 14-08, approved as amended by the PC(USA)’s 219th General Assembly in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.pc-biz.org/Explorer.aspx?id=3179&promoID=126

[11] Ibid.

[12] The phrase “living stones” is derived from 1 Peter 2:4. This passage calls on Christians to be “living stones” from which a spiritual house can be built. Palestinian Christians often invoke this passage themselves.

[13] Fr. Jean Corbon et al., “What Is Required of the Christian Faith Concerning the Palestine Problem: A Memorandum by a Group of Middle Eastern Theologians,” reprinted in Christians, Zionism and Palestine: A Selection of Articles and Statements on the Religious and Political Aspects of the Palestine Problem (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1970), 69-76. The memorandum was originally published in Beirut on 18 June 1967.

[14] Rosemary Radford Ruether and Herman J. Ruether The Wrath of Jonah (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2002), 183-186.

[15] For an authoritative analysis of Ateek’s use of anti-Judaic polemic from the New Testament to cast Israel as a cosmological affront to God’s purposes for humanity, see Adam Gregerman, “Old Wine in New Bottles,” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 41, 2 (2004).

[16] Sabeel has its supporters in every mainline church in the United States, but does not operate with equal influence in every denomination. For example, Sabeel has close ties to the Episcopal Church and, largely as a consequence of Ateek’s status as an Anglican priest, has relied on members of this church for financial support. But Sabeel has achieved its legislative victories, so to speak, in other churches – most notably the United Church of Christ and the Disciples of Christ, neither of which has historical ties of its own to the Holy Land.

Sabeel’s success in these churches highlights how the organization provides an emotional and logistical link to the Holy Land that they would otherwise lack. In return, the churches embrace Sabeel’s anti-Zionist agenda. Sabeel’s success in these churches also highlights the fact that all U.S. mainline Protestant churches relate to the Holy Land in a way that emphasizes politics and activism as opposed to worship and history. To these churches, the Holy Land is not the scene of Christianity’s religious drama but, rather, of an ongoing battle between good and evil in which they can take sides through peace activism.

[17] “Past Witness Trips,” Friends of Sabeel North America. Retrieved 16 September 2010, http://fosna.org/past-witness-trips

[18] This document is not available online, but it is publicized on the website of the Global Ministries Board of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the United Church of Christ. Retrieved 20 September 2010, http://globalministries.org/images/stories/documents/contemporary_way.pdf

[19] “Contemporary Way of the Cross: A Liturgical Journey along the Palestinian Via Dolorosa,” Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation, Jerusalem, 2005, 26-29. For more detail, see Dexter Van Zile, “Sabeel’s Demonizing Liturgy,” CAMERA, 7 December 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=2&x_outlet=118&x_article=1409  This unhappy innovation has been embraced by the United Methodist Church. An appendix to its “Israel-Palestine Mission Study for 2007-2008″ provides discussion leaders with handouts that use the Stations of the Cross to describe Israeli misdeeds and Palestinian suffering.

[20] Sabeel Wave of Prayer for Thursday, November 8, 2007.

[21] For a list of these statements, see http://fosna.org/sabeel-papers, but please note that the dates associated with the texts are not reliable. For example, the date offered for the document titled “Sabeel’s Call for Morally Responsible Investment” is inaccurate. The document was issued sometime before the summer gathering of the United Church of Christ, which took place in July 2004. The document was cited at this assembly by proponents of divestment.

[22] Since 2002 Sabeel has hosted thirty-two major conferences in North America, with the highest level of activity occurring in 2005 and 2008, which witnessed six conferences apiece. See “Past Conferences,” Friends of Sabeel North America. Retrieved 16 September 2010, http://fosna.org/past-conferences  The author has attended three of the conferences on this list, Chicago (2005), Denver (2005), Boston (2007), and two smaller events not listed: Salem, MA (2005) and Quincy, MA (2006).

[23] “International Friends of Sabeel,” Sabeel Narrative Report 2009, Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center. Retrieved 20 September, www.sabeel.org/pdfs/Narrative%20report%202009.pdf

[24] Jean Zaru, Occupied with Nonviolence: A Palestinian Woman Speaks (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2008).

[25] Naim Ateek, A Palestinian Christian Cry for Reconciliation (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2008).

[26] Na’em S. Ateek, “Toward a Strategy for the Episcopal Church in Israel with a Special Focus on the Political Situation: Analysis and Prospect,” dissertation/project presented to the Committee for Advance Pastoral Studies, San Francisco Theological Seminary, 1 August 1982.

[27] Ibid., 261-262.

[28] Ibid., 274.

[29] Ibid., 276.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Quoted in Ateek, “Toward a Strategy,” 178-179.

[32] L. Humphrey Walz, “Prophecy, Zionism, and the State of Israel,” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, February 1989, 41. Retrieved 24 September 2010, www.wrmea.com/backissues/0289/8902041.htm

[33] Berger features prominently in Thomas A. Kolsky’s Jews against Zionism: The American Council for Judaism 1942-1948 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990).

[34] Quoted in Nathan Rotenstreich, “The Revival of the Fossil Remnant: Or Toynbee and Jewish Nationalism,” Jewish Social Studies 24, 3 (July 1962): 131-143. For an example of Toynbee’s comparison of Zionists with Nazis, see 137; for the fossil quote, see 133.

[35] Ibid., 132.

[36] Ateek, “Toward a Strategy,” 179.

[37] Ibid., 180.

[38] Ibid., 190.

[39] Ibid., 191-192.

[40] Ibid., 193-194.

[41] Ibid., 194-196.

[42] Ibid., 197-198.

[43] Ibid., 202.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Ibid., 203.

[46] Ibid., 204.

[47] Ibid., 279.

[48] “The Jerusalem Sabeel Document: Principles for a Just Peace in Palestine-Israel,” Friends of Sabeel North America, 1 May 2006, http://fosna.org/content/jerusalem-sabeel-document-principles-just-peace-palestine-israel  Retrieved 19 January 2011. [Deleted the reference to 2004 in the document because Sabeel in Jerusalem has monkeyed with the dates. Naim Ateek has denied that Sabeel supports a one-state solution, but the evidence indicates that the organization’s ultimate agenda is decidedly in favor of it. For example, Sabeel supporter Mark Braverman notes on page 42 of his text, Fatal Embrace: Christians, Jews, and the Search for Peace in the Holy Land (Austin, TX: Synergy Books, 2010), that the organization does support a one-state solution. Braverman reports a conversation he had with Sabeel activist Nora Carmi in which she stated that the organization supports «the ideal of one state in which Jews and Palestinians could live together as equals, even though she is not optimistic about this coming to pass.»

[49] Ateek, “Toward a Strategy,” 274.

[50] Interestingly enough, Ateek is one of the few members of his family who still lives in the Holy Land; most of his relatives have moved to the United States. Brian Grieves, “A Journey of justice, a journey of faith: An interview with Naim Ateek,” The Witness, September 2001. Retrieved 22 September 2010, http://thewitness.org/archive/sept2001/grievesateekinterview.html

[51] Alain Epp Weaver and Sonia K. Weaver, Salt & Sign: Mennonite Central Committee in Palestine 1949-1999 (Akron, OH: Mennonite Central Committee, 1999), 87.

[52] Rosemary Radford Ruether, Liberation Theology: Human Hope Confronts Christian History and American Power (New York: Paulist Press, 1972).

[53] Ibid., 11.

[54] Ibid., 13.

[55] Dennis T. Olson, Numbers: Interpretation, a Biblical Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Louisville, KY: John Knox Press, 1996), 63.

[56] Naim S. Ateek, Marc H. Ellis, and Rosemary Radford Ruether, eds., Faith and the Intifada (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1991).

[57] Brian Grieves, “A Journey of justice, a journey of faith: An interview with Naim Ateek,” The Witness, September 2001. Retrieved 22 September 2010, http://thewitness.org/archive/sept2001/grievesateekinterview.html

[58] Naim Ateek, “The Zionist Ideology of Domination versus the Reign of God: The Ultimate Triumph of Justice and Love,” sermon given at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Jerusalem, 22 February 2001. Retrieved 14 September 2010, http://web.archive.org/web/20071028165435/http:/www.sabeel.org/old/conf2001/ateek.htm

[59] Ibid.

[60] Richard Rubenstein, After Auschwitz: History, Theology, and Contemporary Judaism, 2d ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), 68.

[61] http://web.archive.org/web/20040130160044/www.sabeel.org/old/conf2001/ateekser.htm

[62] Naim Ateek, “An Easter Message from Sabeel,” 6 April 2001, Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.sabeel.org/pdfs/2001%20Easter%20Message.htm

[63] Amy-Jill Levine, The Misunderstood Jew: The Church and the Scandal of the Jewish Jesus (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2006), 184.

[64] Naim Ateek, “Sabeel Appeals to the Conscience of the International Community to Put an End to the Massacre of the Palestinian People,” Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, 5 October 2000. Retrieved 20 September, http://web.archive.org/web/20071007073212/http:/www.sabeel.org/old/reports/massacre/index.htm  The Arabic version of this document, which is slightly different in tone and content, is available at http://web.archive.org/web/20060813152826/http:/www.sabeel.org/old/reports/massacre/arabic.htm  (retrieved 20 September 2010).

[65] Martin Gilbert, Jerusalem in the Twentieth Century (New York: Wiley, 1996), 119-123.

[66] Gil Sedan, “News Analysis: Militant Islamic Movement is radicalizing Israeli Arabs,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 19 September 2001.

[67] Ateek, “Toward a Strategy,” 1982, 277.

[68] Naim Ateek, “Suicide Bombers: What is theologically and morally wrong with suicide bombings?:

A Palestinian Christian perspective,” Cornerstone 25 (Summer 2001). Retrieved 25 September 2010, http://web.archive.org/web/20040322010409/http:/www.sabeel.org/old/news/cstone25/suicidebombers.htm

[69] Yossi Klein Halevi, At the Entrance to the Garden of Eden: A Jew’s Search for Hope with Christians and Muslims in the Holy Land (New York: Harper Perennial, 2002), xv-xvi.

[70] Khalil ‘Athamina, “Eschatology and Apocalyptic Literature In Early Islam,” in Naim Ateek et al., eds., Challenging Christian Zionism: Theology, Politics and the Israel-Palestine Conflict (London: Melisende, 2005), 179-191.

[71] Dexter Van Zile, “Sabeel’s Rhetoric Questioned by Jewish Peace Activists,” CAMERA, 28 March 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010, www.camera.org/index.asp?x_print=1&x_context=2&x_outlet=118&x_article=1472

[72] Roberta Seid, “Sabeel Brings Intolerance to Seattle, Next Step San Francisco,” Stand With Us, 4 March 2010. Retrieved 21 September, www.standwithus.com/app/inews/view_n.asp?ID=1350

[73] Van Zile, “Sabeel’s Rhetoric.”

[74] Jerome Segal, Creating the Palestinian State: A Strategy for Peace (Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 1989).

[75] Seid, “Sabeel Brings Intolerance.” Seid’s account of Braverman’s talk may be regarded with disbelief by some readers, but it is well within the realm of expected behavior. For more information about Braverman’s message, see Dexter Van Zile, “Kreisky’s Children,” New English Review, January 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2010, www.newenglishreview.org/custpage.cfm/frm/53754/sec_id/53754  Braverman depicts Jews as having lost their way and Christian peace activists as being able to help them back to sanity.

[76] “On Supporting the Geneva Accord, Urging Israel and Palestine to Implement the Accord,” Item 12-01, approved by the PC(USA)’s 2004 General Assembly. Retrieved 14 July 2009, http://index.pcusa.org/NXT/gateway.dll?fn=default.htm$f=templates$vid=GA216:10.1048/Enu$3.0

[77] Gavin Langmuir notes that by 1350, the notion that the Jews were “incapable of fully rational thought [and] conspired to overthrow Christendom,…committed ritual crucifixions, ritual cannibalism, and host profanation, and…caused Black Death by poisoning wells” was widespread in northern Europe. Gavin Langmuir, ­Toward a Definition of Antisemitism (Los Angeles: University of California, 1990), 302.

[78] Ateek did not speak at the PC(USA)’s 2004 General Assembly; that honor went to Lutheran pastor Mitri Raheb. But Sabeel material was a major component of the campaign to convince Presbyterians to support divestment and in the passage of an overture condemning Christian Zionism.

[79] “A Statement for Morally Responsible Investment: A Nonviolent Response to the Occupation,” Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, April 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.sabeel.org/documents/A%20nonviolence%20sabeel%20second%20revision.pdf

[80] Quoted in Wanda Bryant-Wills, “Disciples Call Upon Israel to Tear Down Barrier,” Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), 5 August 2005. Retrieved 8 September 2010, http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/BF52F07A4D2D661B852570570064740F

[81] Anne K. Conway, “Another church slams ‘wall’,” Canadian Jewish News, 4 August 2005, 25.

[82] “The Speech the Disciples of Christ Wouldn’t Hear,” Solomonia (blog), 27 July 2005. Retrieved 8 September 2010, www.solomonia.com/blog/archives/006297.shtml

[83] This list can be seen at http://fosna.org/files/fosna/events/FOSNA-NewsDonorPagesMarch2007.pdf  (retrieved 25 September 2010).

[84] Beth Duff-Brown, “U.S. Clergy Warn about Divesting in Israel,” Associated Press, 28 October 2005.

[85] During the conference, however, Jeff Halper of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions called for wholesale boycotts of Israeli business, including sports teams. Roberta Seid, “Friends of Sabeel Conference, Toronto Oct. 26-29 2005,” unpublished manuscript, 1 November 2005, 1.

[86] Ibid., 2.

[87] Ibid., 3.

[88] Ibid.

[89] Ibid., 4.

[90] Dennis M. Mahoney, “Peace awards will include controversial Palestinian,” Columbus Dispatch, 9 June 2006. Also see “Fair Witness Calls on Rev. Ateek to Repent,” Christians for Fair Witness on the Middle East, Religion Press Release Services, 15 June 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2010, http://religion-press-release-services.blogspot.com/2006/06/fair-witness-calls-on-rev-ateek-to.html

[91] Quoted in “Sabeel’s Naim Ateek receives peace award from Episcopal Peace Fellowship,” Religion Press Release Services, 20 June 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2010, http://religion-press-release-services.blogspot.com/2006/06/sabeels-naim-ateek-receives-peace.html

[92] Quoted in Sherri Wood Emmons, “Is Israel’s security barrier necessary?,” Disciples World, September 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.disciplesworldmagazine.com/node/6605

[93] “In Support of a Renewed and Balanced Study and Response to the Conflict between Palestine and Israel,” referred directly to an Implementing Body by the 26th General Synod of the United Church of Christ on 22 June 2007 (Minutes with Appendices, Twenty-Sixth General Synod, 49-52). Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.ucc.org/synod/pdfs/gs26minutes.pdf

[94] Dexter Van Zile, “Tutu’s Words of Philosemitism Ring Hollow,” CAMERA, 5 November, 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010, www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=2&x_outlet=118&x_article=1396

[95] Dexter Van Zile, “Boston’s Old South Welcomes Sabeel,” CAMERA, 10 October 2007. Retrieved, www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=2&x_outlet=118&x_article=1385

[96] Ronne Friedman, “Sabeel: A Letter from Temple Israel,” 23 October 2007, Solomonia.com. Retrieved 24 September 2010, http://www.solomonia.com/blog/archive/2007/10/sabeel-a-letter-from-temple-israel/

[97] Taylor’s letter can be seen at “Nancy Taylor responds to Rabbi Ronne Friedman,” UCCtruths.com, 9 November 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2010, http://ucctruths.blogspot.com/2007/11/nancy-taylor-responds-to-rabbi-ronne.html

[98] Matthew Davies, “Brian Grieves honored for decades-long peace and justice ministry,” Episcopal Life Online, 19 October 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.episcopalchurch.org/81831_115673_ENG_HTM.htm

[99] Joshua A. Goldberg, “UCC Installs Geoffrey Black as New Leader,” Christian Post, 19 April 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010, www.christianpost.com/article/20100419/ucc-installs-geoffrey-black-as-new-leader/index.html

[100] Dexter Van Zile, “British Methodists Throw Israel under the Bus,” CAMERA, 25 June 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010, http://camera.org/index.asp?x_context=2&x_outlet=118&x_article=1887

[101] Brian D. McLaren, “Last Day in Israel and Palestine,” brian d. mclaren, (blog), 28 January 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010, http://brianmclaren.net/archives/blog/this-morning-ill-be-back.html

[102] Hilary Leila Krieger, “Pro-Israel shoppers defy Ahava products boycott call,” Jerusalem Post, 25 July, 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010, www.jpost.com/International/Article.aspx?id=182493

[103] “Sabeel Now, 2010,” Friends of Sabeel North America (YouTube channel), 2 September 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010, www.youtube.com/user/FriendsOfSabeelNA#p/a/u/0/wgLOG5-T_F0  The off-camera statements of a woman speaking during Bill Christian’s close-up, which begins at 5:14 in the video, are enlightening.

[104] “Sabra and Shatilla: A Testimony,” Friends of Sabeel North America (YouTube channel), 4 September 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010, www.youtube.com/user/FriendsOfSabeelNA#p/a/u/1/v8OWhu4aayY

Den palestinske oppgradering i FN: Hva skjedde egentlig?

Under finner du noter på engelsk til følgende artikkel i SMA-info nr. 4 – 2012:

Den palestinske oppgradering i FN: Hva skjedde egentlig?

Av Alan Baker

Noter:

1 A/Res/67/19, 26 November 2012, http://unispal.un.org/unispal.nsf/0080ef30efce525585256c38006eacae/181c72112f4d0e0685257ac500515c6c?OpenDocument

 

2 Article 1, 1933 Montevideo Convention, http://www.cfr.org/sovereignty/montevideo-convention-rights-duties-states/p15897

 

3 Article 4, UN Charter, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter2.shtml

 

4 http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/240/94/IMG/NR024094.pdf?OpenElement

 

5 http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/UN+Security+Council+Resolution+338.htm

 

6 See exchange of letters between PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, 9 Sept. 1993, in which Arafat promised “The PLO commits itself to the Middle East peace process, and to a peaceful resolution of the conflict between the two sides and declares that all outstanding issues relating to permanent status will be resolved through negotiations.” http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Israel-PLO+Recognition+-+Exchange+of+Letters+betwe.htm

 

7 See also the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf

http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/The+Balfour+Declaration.htm

9 http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/The+Mandate+for+Palestine.htm

 

10 http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/THE+ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN+INTERIM+AGREEMENT.htm

 

11See the chapter by this author on “Israel’s Rights Regarding Territories and the Settlements in the Eyes of the International Community,” in Israel’s Rights as a Nation State in International Diplomacy (Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 2011), http://jcpa.org/book/israels-rights/

 

12 See Article 5 of the 1993 Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles (commonly known as “Oslo 1”), http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Declaration+of+Principles.htm, and the PLO-Israel 1995 Interim Agreement, http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/THE+ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN+INTERIM+AGREEMENT.htm

 

13To the contrary – Article 27 (Planning and Zoning) of Annex III (Civil Affairs) to the 1995 Palestinian-Israeli Interim Agreement specifically enables each respective party to conduct the requisite planning, zoning and construction activities in its respective areas, http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/THE+ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN+INTERIM+AGREEMENT+-+Annex+III.htm#app-27

 

14 Eyal Gross, “Following UN Recognition of Palestine, Israel Could Be Forced to Defend Itself at The Hague,” Ha’aretz, 2 Dec. 2012.

 

15 http://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/rdonlyres/916fc6a2-7846-4177-a5ea-5aa9b6d1e96c/0/iccasp3res1_english.pdf

16 See Articles 12-14 of the Statute of the ICC http://untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/statute/romefra.htm

 

17 http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/C6162BBF-FEB9-4FAF-AFA9-836106D2694A/284387/SituationinPalestine030412ENG.pdf